Many people have stated that they do not believe that a child wrote the letters. But their statements really have nothing to do with the handwriting. It's just people voicing an unwillingness to accept or believe that an adult would use a child that way - or that the terrorist would risk using a child that way. These are beliefs and have nothing to do with facts.
What does the evidence say?
Here is one of the
Here are some children's
writing samples as found on the Web:
Letter #1 is on lined paper, but it still shows a couple interesting things: (1) the J in June is not crossed, and (2) the way the capital R is drawn. (A lot of people think the "extender" on the Rs are drawn too long and they feel that indicates something or other.) They apparently notice this because of some Bangladesh protest signs. Here is a comparison:
I do not yet have many examples from Kid's letters, but they seem consistent with the Rs in the anthrax letters, which are very different from the Rs in the Bangali protest signs. Most kids seem to write Rs with the extender coming from the intersection of the vertical line and the lower part of the loop, but not all. Letter #1 shows an R drawn the way it was done in the anthrax letters.
One source tells me that the R's in the anthrax letters are simply the way that R's are drawn in American public schools, and the R's on the Bangladesh signs are the way R's are drawn in Catholic schools:
Letter #2, in the examples of children's handwiting, is a good illustration of the tendency to write on a downward slope when not writing on lined paper. It also shows that the capital E is drawn with the center line of equal length to the upper and lower lines (as in the anthrax letters), which is not the way I (as an adult) would do it.
Letter #3 shows that some kids do cross the J. If examined closely, it also shows that the lines are wavy because the writer is accustomed to writing on lined paper.
All three letters show how children write capital letters larger than lower case letters.
Letters #1 and #2
have examples of writing in all capitals, and in neither case did the writer
write the first letters of the sentences larger than the other letters.
Why? Because in this situation it is the equivalent of SHOUTING.
The examples do not show how children would write in all capitals
if simply told to do so - without shouting. An adult would amost
certainly write with all capital letters of the same height. I know
that's how I'd do it. But what would a child do?
The two letters above were picked from my very small collection of less than a dozen letters. Letter #4 shows that putting dashes between the numbers of a date is something that a child might do, but in this case she didn't put a zero in front of the single digits in the date. She also clearly demonstrates how her writing becomes wavy when she's writing on unlined paper. Letter #5 is another case where a child crosses the J and writes in a way that slopes downward on the left.
Letter #4 also shows that the number 1 is written without serifs and the capital I is written with serifs. I have no examples of a writer doing exactly the opposite, except for the writer of the anthax letters. That peculiarity in the handwriting could be a key to identifying the writer. The writer has a very unusual habit of writing "I"s without serifs and "1"s with serifs.
Another odd writing habit seems to have occurred mainly when addressing the envelope to Tom Brokaw. It appears on no other available envelope or letter to anywhere near the same degree.
Note that the writer had a habit of pausing for a moment at the end of completing a stroke before removing the pen from the paper. Such pauses result in ball-shaped ends to the strokes. This seems to indicate that the writer was being very careful as he laboriously copied the address, perhaps glancing at the original before removing the pen from the paper. He was carefully drawing letters stroke by stroke, often pausing before lifting the pen to begin a new stroke.
He also draws Ns and Ys with 3 separate strokes and Ms and Ws with 4 separate strokes, where most people would write Ys with 2 strokes and Ms with 2 strokes and Ws with 1 stroke.
Like so many other
things about the handwriting, this, too, indicates the writing of a child.
And the child must have been a fast learner, since he virtually dropped
that habit after addressing this one envelope. Although we can't
be certain because the letters to Dan Rather and Peter Jennings were discarded,
it could indicate that the Tom Brokaw letter was the first envelope he
addressed, and the media envelopes were probably addressed before the media
letters were written.
|The writing on
the Tom Brokaw letter is about twice the size of the lettering on the Daschle
letter. But since the width of the pen strokes is not doubled, it
was clearly just a change in the way the letters were written. It wasn't
magnification by the copy machine.
The changes in writing size between the two mailings also seems to indicate that an adult may not have been doing the writing. It seems unplanned.
Another odd thing about the letters is the way they were cropped unevenly with a scissors. No two letters are the same size. Letter #1 seems to confirm, however, that standard 8-1/2 x 11 copy paper was used, since three of its sides were left mostly untouched.
The most likely reason the bottoms of the letters were cut off was to make the paper size fit better into a small envelope after it had been folded with the pharmaceutical fold.
What's needed for a better analysis of the handwriting is more examples. There seem to be very few on the Internet. Most letters from kids on the Internet have been converted into fonts, and most of the rest seem to be from older children. Examples must be from the right age or they are of little value for comparison and analysis.
Letters to Santa from a post office would be an ideal source in several ways: there would be lots of them, and they would be addressed to a place where no harm is done if the address is shown on this web site.
This page is intended to be an analysis of the evidence. As far as I can tell, there is no evidence that the letters were written by an adult - much less a foreign-born adult.
Nevertheless, people argue that a foreigner who is accustomed to writing Arabic right to left might write at an angle when writing in English. But no one can provide examples. And my experience with the Japanese language says that it's not a valid argument.
People argue that the writer could be writing with his wrong hand. But as stated elsewhere on this site, experts totally discount that theory. When a person writes in an unaccustomed way, it can usually be easily detected by abnormal spacing between letters and words. Plus, when most people write with their wrong hand, the writing looks like they have palsy. It's very shakey.
People argue that the writer could be a mental case who is writing in an unusual way because of his pent up frustrations. Perhaps. But I don't have any evidence of that. And that analysis seems to be based upon the context rather than the actual handwriting.
People argue that the writer could be an adult who was picked by the terrorist because he has the mental capabilities of a six year old. Possibly. Time will tell. But nothing in the handwriting clearly indicates that.
And most of these
arguments fall apart when one compares the handwriting on the envelopes
to the handwriting on the letters. It's clearly the same handwriting
by the same person, but the writer only has a serious problem writing in
a straight line when writing the envelopes. He writes very straight
in the letters. If anything, he might write at a slight upward angle.
Here is a comparison:
Why? The best guess could be that with a small envelope he has trouble judging the amount of room he has to complete what he has to write. It's a common problem with children's writing. When it looks like they might be running out of room, they start directing their writing toward where they have the most space - toward the farthest corner - the lower right corner. But with a large sheet of paper, he has plenty of room and doesn't concern himself with running out of space.
On June 3, 2004, while browsing the Net, I stumbled upon a web site by "Brother Jonathan" where he explains things. He says:
The lettering style itself would seem most curious, but is quite simply the modified uncial style of lettering taught in American kindergarten and early first grade classes, using only all upper case letters.He goes into considerable detail about why children are first taught to write in all capitals, making the first letter of sentences and proper nouns larger than other letters. And he adds:
This would show the author of the letters went through kindergarten [in 2000-2001], and in the first weeks of September of  when the letters were written had just started first grade but still had not yet learned the lower case letters.Finally, he concludes that the writer of the letters was a boy who was about 6 years old when he wrote the letters.
Is it true that children entering first grade all write this way? It's definitely something that will be checked further.
Zeroes and O's
Yet another observation made on March 12, 2003, seems to confirm that someone other than the anthrax mailer wrote the anthrax letters - but the "proof" is very much open to interpretation. An examination of the date on the media letter versus the text of the media letter seems to clearly indicate that the date was not written by the same person who wrote the text. It has mainly to do with the way the zeroes and O's were written, but also with the writing of the number 1.
Here's a comparison of the zeroes and O's and 1's in the date and the text of the media letter:
People do not normally draw a zero different from drawing an O.
Notice that when the date was written, the circle that forms the first zero is barely closed at the top and the second is clearly left unconnected.
But the person who wrote the text of the letter did things very differently with the alphabetical character O. He not only completes ever single O, on all three O's in the text he went past the point were the circle would be complete and drew over part of the letter. He did the same thing on many of the O's and zeroes when addressing the envelopes.
The zeros in the date are also more round while the O's and zeroes in the text and on the envelopes are much more oval in shape.
Combined with the fact that the 1's in the date show shorter serifs than the 1's on the media envelopes, it seems a near certainty that the date was not written by the person who wrote the text of the letters and addressed the envelopes.
Unfortunately, the second letter does not show anything anywhere near as clearly. Here's a comparison of the date on the first letter and the date on the second letter:
It's a much smaller sample to work with, but it appears that the writer of the text of the first letter wrote all of the second letter - and copied the date from the first letter. It can't be proven, but that's the way it appears to me.
In other words, it appears one person wrote the date on the first letter but someone else wrote the text of that letter, the entire second letter including the date, and also addressed all the envelopes.
The second letter was apparently written without any pressures of time. While the media letter showed "doodling" where the writer drew over many characters, there is no sign of that sort of thing on the Senate letter. The O's are also more round and less oval on the second letter. One can assume that the culprit had time to think about what sort of mistakes he may have made on the first mailing, and took precautions to avoid such mistakes on the second mailing when he was not so pressed for time.
Why was the date on the first letter written by a different person?
Was the date simply added as an afterthought? Or was the letter already written and the envelopes already addressed when 9-11 occurred? There's no evidence either way. But if the letter was already written and the envelopes already addressed when 9-11 occurred, that opens up a lot of implications. It seems a near certainty that the culprit had anthrax available prior to 9-11. I've speculated that his "Plan A" may have been benign and harmless, and the media mailing was a hastily constructed "Plan B" after 9-11. But now I'm thinking: maybe not. Maybe "Plan A" was his original plan all along, and all 9-11 did was speed things up and force the culprit to use unrefined anthrax. I hope not. I shudder to think what would have happened if the first mailing had been with refined anthrax to five different media organizations. But it's all just speculation.
One has to assume that the culprit is the person who added the date. The writer of the text may have been no longer available, or the culprit may have worried that the primary writer would mess up the letter in some way forcing the culprit to start again from scratch.
Do I believe that the letters were written by a child? It's unimportant what I believe. What's important is what the evidence says.
On Oct. 13, 2001,
Petersburg Times printed a picture of the envelope for a hoax letter
that appears to have been postmarked on Oct. 8, 2001 (or is that a 6 or
a 2?). The envelope illustrates a great deal about handwriting, and
the article says that the Post Office investigated over 80 hoax anthrax
mailings per year prior to Sept. 11. Here are the hoax letter
and the real letters:
Note that the hoax envelope has a regular 34 cent stamp, while the Brokaw envelope is a pre-stamped Post Office envelope. In addition to the differences illustrated in the graphic, notice the difference in the letter S. Note that the hoax letter does a much better job of writing in a straight line. Note that the writer of the hoax letter has a habit of not connecting strokes - (the M in MR, the incomplete letter Os, the A in HOWARD, etc.). Note that the hoaxer puts a dash between the city and state and a period after the abbreviation of the state. Note that the hoaxer completes his the letter Os on the middle of the right side, while the writer of the anthrax letter completes his Os on the left side. Note that the hoaxer does not use serifs on the number 1, while the anthrax mailer does. Note that the hoaxer does NOT write the first letter of words larger than the others if the word is normally capitalized.
The hoaxer probably wrote his letter with his left hand, while being right handed. There is a definite unsteadiness to the handwriting (as if the writer had palsy). The writer of the anthrax letters shows no sign of having been written with the wrong hand.
No one believes that both of these letters were written by the same person, and they are shown here primarily to demonstrate how very different handwriting can be even when a person is writing in all capitals. In addition, because the hoax letter was mailed before it was known that someone was actually sending out anthrax letters, it demonstrates how ready some people may be to use any news story as an excuse to send out hoax letters. It appears that the hoax letter was mailed a few days after the news broke in Florida that Bob Stevens had anthrax. The hoaxer wasted no time in crawling out from under his rock to take advantage of the situation for his own personal reasons. "Howard Toxler ... 1st case of disease now blow away this dust so you see how the real thing flys. Oklahoma-Ryder Truck! Skyway bridge-18 wheels." certainly doesn't sound like an Al Qaeda threat.
In another hoax anthrax case at about the same time, a man in Indianapolis was arrested for sending three threatening hoax anthrax letters: "one to Defense Security Service, a component of the Department of Defense located in Indianapolis; one to the Indianapolis office of the FBI; and a third to the office of COPS (Community Oriented Policing Services) in Washington, D.C. Each letter contained the threat, "You die now" and a white powdery substance." He was released on bond and has since disappeared. Click HERE for details.
In another hoax case, a Massachusetts grandmother mailed 18 threatening hoax letters to the Massachusetts State Attorney General, 6 of them containing white powder. The letters arrived at their destinations between Oct. 22 and Dec. 6, 2001. Details of the case are HERE.
Here's a quote from Richard Preston's book "The Demon In The Freezer" that gives a good indication of just how many hoaxes there were prior to 9-11:
"[David Lee] Wilson was head of the [FBI's] HMRU [Hazardous Materials Response Unit] between 1997 and 2000, and during those years the number of credible bioterror threats or incidents rose dramatically, up to roughly 200 per year, or one biological threat every couple of days. Most of them were anthrax hoaxes."
Apparently because of the timing of the Maryland Sniper cases, and the fact that John Allen Muhammad is a coverted Muslim, and the fact that Lee Malvo has some connections to Florida and New Jersey, some people believe that there might be a connection to the anthrax cases.
I find no reason to believe such a thing - because the snipers had no known
access to anthrax, much less the expertise or facilities to refine it -
the fact that Lee Malvo tended to write in all block letters provides us
with a different handwriting example to analyze. Here is a sample
of Lee Malvo's handwriting:
that Lee Malvo does not write R's the way the anthrax letter writer
wrote his R's.
It's difficult to describe in words, but the differences can be seen below:
A quick glance shows not only the difference in the R, but also in the G, the I and the M. The anthrax letter writer did not use serifs on the letter I, Lee Malvo does. The anthrax letter writer wrote his M's with the central V going all the way down to the base, Lee Malvo doesn't.
This is a very good illustration of how block writing can differ greatly from one person to another.
OTHER HOAX CASES
Other hoax cases from the time of the anthrax mailings are described in the following articles:
- Feb. 19, 1998 - "FBI picks up 2 men suspected of having deadly anthrax"
CNN - Feb. 20, 1998 - "Man suspected of having anthrax predicted attack"
Las Vegas Sun (AP) - Mar. 24, 1998 - "Harris sentenced for probation violation"
Reuters - November 19, 1998 - "Miami Beach anthrax scare was a hoax"
The Washington Post - Feb. 5, 1999 - "Anthrax Hoaxes Are Sent In Mail"
Jewish Bulletin - Apr. 28, 2000 - "Anthrax threat rattles Univ. of Pennsylvania Hillel"
The Las Vegas Review-Journal - Oct. 14, 2001 - "Anthrax bacteria in Reno letter"
Reuters - Oct. 15, 2001 - "Anthrax found in envelope to Microsoft Reno office"
Associated Press - Oct. 18, 2001 - "Letter to Microsoft office in Nevada tests negative for anthrax"
Atlanta Journal-Constitution - Oct. 19, 2001 - "Experts doubt anthrax a domestic plot"
USA Today - Nov. 19, 2001 - "Mayor criticizes FBI handling of anthrax scare"
Center for Nonproliferation Studies - May 20, 2002 - "Tracking Anthrax Hoaxes and Attacks"
The Times of Acadiana - May 29, 2002 - "The Threat of a Threat"
The Mercury News - June 1, 2002 - "Oakland man arraigned on suspicion of mailing anthrax threat to Ashcroft"
The Hartford Courant - June 5, 2002 - "Anthrax Hoax Case Falters"
The Daily Post-Athenian - June 6, 2002 - "Woman pleads guilty to charge in anthrax case"
The Express Times - June 7, 2002 - "Postal worker faces trial over powder"
The Citizen - June 7, 2002 - "Brentwood man pleads innocent to threatening President Bush
The San Diego Union Tribune - June 10, 2002 - "Richmond man pleads guilty to sending phony anthrax threat"
The Boston Globe - June 13, 2002 - "Herald, governor's office evacuated in anthrax hoax"
The Marathon Keynoter - June 13, 2002 - "Couple finds white powder in letter"
The Leesville Daily Leader - June 16, 2002 - "Leesville woman pleads guilty to Anthrax hoax"
Report on Hoaxes: Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University, Washington, D.C.
The Huntsville Times-Daily - June 19, 2002 - "Officials say woman sent threatening letters"
Associated Press - June 9, 2002 - "Washington state man accused of manufacturing biological weapon"
The Benton Harbor MI Herald-Palladium - June 20, 2002 - "Man says he got powdery substance in mail"
The Lubbock Avalanche-Journal - June 20, 2002 - "Man arrested in Alpine anthrax hoax"
The Quad-City Times - June 22, 2002 - "Man gets probation for anthrax threat"
The Peoria Pantograph - June 30, 2002 - "Peoria police may have found anthrax"
Newsday - July 3, 2002 - "Officials: Bites, Not Anthrax"
The Times of Arcadia - July 3, 2002 - "Seeds of Mistrust"
The Abiline Reporter-News - July 10, 2002 - "Man pleads guilty to using Ajax in anthrax 'joke'"
Associated Press - July 13, 2002 - "Woman Found Guilty in Anthrax Hoax"
The Fresno Bee - July 14, 2002 - "Modestan convicted for cornstarch in envelope"
BBC - July 16, 2002 - "Former teacher jailed for anthrax hoax"
Associated Press - - July 19, 2002 - "White House Warns on Anthrax Tests"
Associated Press - July 23, 2002 - "Police Arrest Man For Anthrax Hoax"
Wiltshire Times - July 26, 2002 - "Anthrax letter sent to mother"
Associated Press - July 29, 2002 - "Anthrax hoaxer gets 10-month sentence"
The Kewanee Star-Courier - July 30, 2002 - "No anthrax at food pantry"
Abiline Reporter-News - Aug. 4, 2002 - "Woman sentenced to jail for anthrax hoaxes in Jasper County"
The Fresno Bee - Aug. 8, 2002 - "Anthrax jokester cuts one-year deal"
The Chicago Tribune - Aug. 8, 2002 - "Anthrax hoaxer gets 35-month prison term"
Associated Press - Aug. 15, 2002 - "Fake Anthrax Mailer Gets 19 Years"
The Charleston Daily Mail - Aug. 16, 2002 - "City man convicted for sending anthrax hoaxes to Bush, Wise"
The Herald Tribune (AP) - Aug. 22, 2002 - "Jury acquits in anthrax hoax trial"
German News - Aug. 23, 2002 - "Two arrested over fake anthrax letters"
The Express-Times - Aug. 27, 2002 - "Man gets max for anthrax threat"
Reuters - Aug. 27, 2002 - "White Powder Scare at Al Gore's Tennessee Office"
The Denver Channel - Aug. 27, 2002 - "Colorado Man Pleads Guilty To Anthrax Hoax"
The Tampa News-Press - Aug. 30, 2002 - "Not Guilty in Anthrax Case"
Reuters - Sept. 4, 2002 - "Eight Massachusetts Police Stations Get Mail Scare"
CNN - Sept. 4, 2002 - "Massachusetts letters test negative for anthrax"
The Macon Telegraph - Sept. 6, 2002 - "Anthrax hoax causes Macon courthouse to shut down"
The Burlington NC Times-News - Sept. 9, 2002 - "Anthrax scares dwindle with time, learning"
Associated Press - Sept. 11, 2002 - "U.S. Embassy in Copenhagen receives 'suspicious package' with powder"
The Poughkeepsie Journal - Sept. 11, 2002 - "'Suspicious' package turns out to be cookies"
South London - Sept. 11, 2002 - "Town in anthrax scare"
Reuters - Sept. 11, 2002 - "Hamburg U.S. Consulate Says Suspect Letter Harmless"
The Asheville News Observer - Sept. 12, 2002 - "Jury convicts man of making anthrax threats against courthouse"
The Houston Chronicle - Sept. 16, 2002 - "Woman gets 6 months for Houston anthrax hoax"
The Columbus Ledger-Enquirer - Sept. 19, 2002 - "Man indicted for anthrax hoax"
The Brentwood Union Leader - Sept. 20, 2002 - Brentwood teen guilty in anthrax hoax"
The Salem Statesman Journal - Sept. 25, 2002 - "Capitol powder tests negative for anthrax"
Reuters - Sept. 26, 2002 - "No anthrax, smallpox in threatening Oregon letter"
The Marietta Daily Journal - Sept. 26, 2002 - "Anthrax hoax nets defendant 3 months"
The Oregonian - Sept. 27, 2002 - "Response protocol wasn't used in anthrax scare"
This is London - Sept. 30, 2002 - "Anthrax 'joker' in court"
The Fresno Bee - Oct. 2, 2002 - "Modesto man sentenced in anthrax scare"
The Tennessean - Oct. 2, 2002 - "Man sentenced in anthrax hoax"
The Wickenburg Sun - Oct. 3, 2002 - "Anthrax scare hits Town Hall"
The Courier-News - Oct. 15, 2002 - " Sender Claimed Anthrax Hoax Letter Was A Joke"
Greenwich Time - Oct. 17, 2002 - "Hoax suspect gets jail sentence"
Associated Press - Oct. 18, 2002 - "Anthrax 'Joke' Earns Woman Probation"
The Philadelphia Inquirer - Oct. 19, 2002 - "Former police officers found guilty in 2001 anthrax hoax"
The Portsmouth Herald - Oct. 24, 2002 - "Teen-ager sentenced to prison in anthrax threat"
The Chicago Tribune - Oct. 27, 2002 - "Justice varies in anthrax hoaxes"
The BBC - Nov. 1, 2002 - "'Anthrax hoaxer' escapes jail"
The Hartford Courant - Nov. 7, 2002 - "New Charges In Anthrax Joke"
The Kemmerer Gazette - Nov. 7, 2002 - "Hospital handles anthrax scare"
The Perthshire Advertiser - Nov. 8, 2002 - "Anthrax letter hoaxer escapes jail term"
The Charleston Daily Mail - Nov. 8, 2002 - "County man gets 16 years for sending hoax anthrax letters"
totallyjewish.com - Nov. 8, 2002 - "Prankster Punished"
The Baton Rouge Advocate - Nov. 9, 2002 - "Woman says friend innocent of threat"
Dumfries & Galloway Standard - Nov. 13, 2002 - "Anthrax case dropped"
Associated Press - Nov. 18, 2002 - "Portuguese newspapers apologize for anthrax ad alarm"
The Hartford Courant - Nov. 19, 2002 - "Anthrax Liar Gets 30-Day Sentence"
The Hartford Courant - Nov. 20, 2002 - "Envelope With Threat Halts Mail Sorting"
Roll Call - Nov. 21, 2002 - "Anthrax Hoax Case Goes to Jury"
The Salem Statesman-Journal - Nov. 28, 2002 - "No jail time for 2001 anthrax hoax"
The Hartford Courant - Dec. 9, 2002 - "Anthrax joke victim faces trial as government tries to save face"
The Naples (FL) Daily News - Dec. 20, 2002 - "Volusia man arrested for making anthrax hoax"
WFSB Eyewitness News (AP) - Dec. 21, 2002 - "Anthrax hoax verdict: Guilty"
The Halifax Herald Limited - Jan. 4, 2003 - "Anthrax hoax targets gun registry"
Keynews.com - Jan. 16, 2003 - "Betty Crocker has hand in anthrax scare"
The Argus (Oakland, CA) - Jan. 17, 2003 - "Hayward building has anthrax scare"
The Sun And Weekly Herald (FL) - Jan. 22, 2003 - "Terror hoax was voodoo rite"
The Philadelphia Inquirer - Jan. 25, 2003 - "Medford man gets jail for hoax"
The Daily Illini - Feb. 3, 2003 - "Rantoul man charged in connection with anthrax mailings"
The Battalion - Feb. 11, 2003 - "Woman sentenced for Anthrax hoax"
The Boston Globe - Feb. 15, 2003 - "Anthrax scare forces evacuation of Faneuil Hall"
The State (South Carolina) - Feb. 16, 2003 - "Anthrax Scare Closes N.J. Post Office"
Associated Press - Feb. 19, 2003 - "Anthrax ruled out in powder found at Morris post office"
CNN Today - Feb. 28, 2003 - "Envelopes with white powder sent to four GOP lawmakers"
Naples Daily News - Mar. 12, 2003 - "DeLeon Springs man pleads to federal anthrax hoax charge"
The Day (CT) - Mar. 15, 2003 - "Woman Faces Prison For Powder Incident"
The New York Post - Mar. 27, 2003 - "Loophole's The Word For Freed Hoax Guy"
Time Magazine - Apr. 16, 2003 - "The Return of the Hoaxers"
The Hartford Courant - May 20, 2003 - "Anthrax Hoax: Case Closed"
The Honolulu Star-Bulletin - July 1, 2002 - "Woman gets 7-year term for sending faked-anthrax letters"
The Lafayette Daily Advertiser - Aug. 19, 2003 - "Suspect in Anthrax Hoax in Court on Arson Charges"
The New York Times - Sept. 9, 2003 - "Anthrax Note Not a Threat, Judge Rules"
The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Sept. 19, 2003 - "Man charged in anthrax hoax to plead guilty"
The Concord Monitor - Nov. 4, 2003 - "State employees fired for anthrax hoax"
Newsday - Nov. 12, 2003 - "Police investigate suspicious letter sent to TV station"
The Miami Herald - Jan. 3, 2004 - "Frame-up claimed in anthrax hoax-letter case"
The Advertiser - Jan. 10, 2003 - "Long found guilty in anthrax hoax that slowed down city"
The Miami Herald - Feb. 11, 2004 - "Woman acquitted in anthrax hoax"
The Washington Post - Apr. 13, 2004 - "Suspicious Powders, Packages Keep FBI Unit on Edge"
Associated Press - May 3, 2004 - "Man gets 30 years in anthrax hoax"
The Star-Ledger - June 18, 2005 - "FBI investigates wave of anthrax hoax letters in Jersey"
The Sun-Sentinel - August 2, 2005 - "Federal analyst charged in anthrax threat against property appraiser"
The Sun-Sentinel - August 5, 2005 - "Suspect in anthrax threat free on bail while awaiting Aug. 24 hearing"
Associated Press - Aug. 5, 2005 - "Fla. Prisoner Gets Life in Anthrax Threat"
- 2005 by Ed Lake
All Rights Reserved